Full Form of CPU

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CPU Full Form

Central Processing Unit

CPU Full Form is Central Processing Unit. It is pronounced as individual letters. CPU is hardware of a computer which is also referred to as ‘processor’ or ‘central processor’. It is the brain of computers in which majority of the computations or calculations take place. It is the CPU which is responsible for the execution and interpretation of most instructions from the software and hardware. The CPU comprises of two main components (1) ALU or Arithmetic Logic Unit – This performs all logical and arithmetic operations, (2) CU or Control Unit – This extracts various instructions from the memory of the computer, decodes, and executes the same. It calls on the ALU as and when required. Conventional systems had CPU as a separate unit away from the monitor, while the modern computers have them as an integral part of the sleek monitor.

Full Form of CPU
Full Form of CPU

CPU basically refers to the electronic circuitry that is equipped with a computer system and conducts basic arithmetic, control, logical input/output (abbreviated as I/O) operations for carrying out the instructions it receives from the computer program. Since the early 1960s, the acronym CPU has become internationally popular. In the purest sense, a CPU denotes a processor, more particularly the control unit (abbreviated as CU) and processing unit and is distinguished from the main elements of a computer such as I/O circuitry and main memory.


The design, form, and implementation of CPUs have undergone several changes with the passage of time and advancement of technology, however, their core operations have remained largely unchanged. Main components of a CPU include processor registers which are responsible for the provision of operands to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (abbreviated as ALU), which is another main component of a CPU. ALU is responsible for the performance of logic operations and arithmetic operations. The third main component of the CPU is a CPU that fetches whatever instructions that come from memory and undertakes the execution of coordinated operations of the registers, the ALU, and other components.


Contemporary CPUs are basically microprocessors that are equipped with an integrated circuit (abbreviated as IC) chip. An IC comprising a CPU may include peripheral interfaces, microcontrollers, systems on a chip (abbreviated as SoC) or microcontrollers, etc. A few computers make use of a multi-core processor, which is actually a single chip that contains two or more CPUs known as chores. In this context, the chips are often called sockets. Vector processors or array processors have different processors operating in parallel possessing no central unit. Thus, a CPU is key in ensuring that a computer is able to perform functions it is made to perform.