Full Form of IPS – History of IPS – Selection process in IPS

Full Form of IPS :

Indian Police Service

IPS Full Form is Indian Police Service. IPS is basically concerned with the governance and maintenance of law and order of the country. This is one of the most prestigious and most responsible positions in India. An individual who has qualified and appointed as IPS officer is supposed to work for the State as well as Central Government. The primary responsibility of this officer is the security and safety of the public. Some of the other responsibilities include; crime detection and prevention, accident prevention, traffic control, and at times heading the vigilance services, etc.

IPS Full Form: Important Information

Every government in this world requires an effective, responsive, and capable administrative framework that will be able to tactfully and swiftly manage cumbersome administrative affairs of the country. Such a framework is essential in ever-expansive governmental affairs and provides for a systematic division of functions within the governmental structure.

Full Form of IPS - History of IPS - Selection process in IPS
Full Form of IPS – History of IPS – Selection process in IPS

Thus, bureaucracy provides a system comprising intelligent individuals, who have made it through some of the toughest examinations designed to test them on various indicators. In India, bureaucracy is particularly important, considering the complex quasi-federal structure, population, geographical areas, and other relevant factors that put immense pressure on the central administrative system to undertake important public policy implementation without many hassles.

This is, however; only possible if there are officials in different rungs of the administrative set-up. Therefore, we need bureaucrats and that capable and hard working ones. Civil Services Examination is conducted by the Union Public Services Commission, which is the central authority, every year. The Union Public Services Commission is the country’s central authority responsible for the conduct of several all India level examinations to recruit selected candidates in prestigious governmental positions. Some of the examinations it conducts are Civil Services Examination, Indian Forest Examination, Indian Police Service Examination, Special Class railway Apprentice Examination, Naval Academy Examination, National Defence Academy Examination, Engineering Services Examination, etc.

All these examinations are considered some of the toughest entrance examinations in the country. For the purpose of this article, Indian Police Service (IPS) is the subject of discussion. The Indian Police Service is one of the three all India Services of the government of India. Candidates have to sit for and qualify the Civil Services Examination in order to secure prestigious administrative positions in the central government and state governments. IPS superseded the colonial Imperial Police Service in the year 194, after the declaration of Independence. IPS is not a mere administrative service but has many defining factors that must be known. Therefore, the following paragraphs will highlight the history, technicalities, functions, and other relevant information about it.

History of IPS:

Like most of the administrative services in the country, IPS had its beginning in the colonial era. During the British rule, it was known as the Imperial Police Service, in which the Secretary of State was authorized to appoint senior police officials on the basis of their performance in the competitive exam ination. The first examination for the recruitment of senior police officials was conducted in England in the year 1893 in which top ten performers were appointed in senior positions in the Indian Imperial Police Service.

The officers were directed to wear the letters ‘IP’ that signified Imperial Police and helped distinguish them from officers not selected through the examination. Eventually, the Imperial Police Service was replaced by the Indian Police Service in the following the year of the declaration of Independence.

Objective behind establishment of IPS:

In the colonial period, the IPS was established with the purpose of implementing a police system in the country and regulating the affairs pertaining to the enforcement of law and order. The same was highlighted in the First Police Commission, which laid down guidelines for the effective functioning of the police system in India.

The same remains the essence of Indian Police Service. It must be noted that IPS is not a force but recruits officials that would command state police and all-India Central Armed Police Forces. The members of the IPS are senior officials, who have been trained to command police forces.

Some of the functions that IPS officers perform are:

  • To ensure maintenance of public peace, law and order, crime prevention, and collection of intelligence. Basically, the task is to undertake all those activities that are essential for the maintenance of law and order.
  • IPS officers are leading officials in Intelligence agencies like RAW (expanded as Research and Analysis Wing), IB (expanded as Intelligence Bureau), CBI (expanded as Central Bureau of Investigation), etc.
  • IPS officials are commanding officers in state police forces and Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF). CAPF talks about different categories of police forces namely, BSF (expanded as Border Security Force), NSG (expanded as National Security Guard) , CISF (expanded as Central Industrial Security Force), CRPF (expanded as Central Reserve Police Force), and other law enforcement agencies.
  • Many IPS officials occupy top-notch positions in key government ministries and contribute in policy-making. They often head Public Sector Undertakings at both Central and State levels.
  • To establish consistent and comprehensive dialogue with other all India services. It is required from them to communicate routinely with the Indian Revenue Service, and Indian Armed Forces. This helps to collect and build up a strong database about various affairs of the country.
  • The rules for IPS provide that IPS officials should try to inculcate positive attributes in the police forces in their command. They should bolster their courage, determination, and zeal to protect and preserve the peace of the society.
  • To undertake steps for the ensuring justice and protecting human rights.

Selection process in IPS:

The selection process is rigorous and tough. IPS officers are often recruited from the state cadres and from among the candidates of the Civil Services Examination who have successfully achieved the minimum marks requirement.

The Civil Services Examination is a three-level process. The first level is the written examination that is patterned on objective questions whose qualification is the first requirement. The paper comprises General Studies and aptitude questions. Following this examination is the Main Examination, which only those candidates who have cleared the first level will be allowed to give. The last level is the interview, whose objective is to test the candidate on various performance indicators.

When a candidate successfully passes all the aforementioned three levels, he is allotted a cadre. Every Indian state has a cadre but there are three also joint cadres namely, Assam-Meghalaya, Manipur-Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories. Of all the members of the cadre, two-thirds are filled by the IPS officials and the remnants are filled by the cadre officers who have been promoted.

Designations of IPS officers:

The pay scale varies with the ranks of the IPS officials in state and central government departments. The following paragraph deals with the pay scale of state IPS officers:

  • Above Super Time Scale officers are those officers who have worked as IPS officers for about 30 years. These officers occupy top-notch positions like that of Director of the Intelligence Bureau or Central Bureau of India; State Commissioner of Police.
  • There is another category of Above Super Time Scale officers, who have spent about 25 years in IPS cadres. These officers join the ranks of Special Commissioner of Police.
  • Super Time Scale officers are those officers, who have been in IPS cadres for 18 years. These officers hold the position of Joint Commissioner of Police
  • Junior Administrative Grade officers have given about 9 years of service in IPS cadres and hold positions of Deputy Commissioner of Police.
  • Junior Time Scale officers are on the lowest rung of the structure. These are fresh IPS officers, who hold positions of Assistant Commissioner of Police.

Every designation has its own separate set of benefits. These benefits are conferred upon the officials on the basis of several considerations, for example, their tenure of service and rank. Take, for example, the grade pay of officers will vary from one officer to another, depending on the rank.

Every designation will carry its own distinct insignia, for example, the Director of Intelligence Bureau will carry an insignia, having National Emblem above One Star that is above Crossed Swords and Baton; Joint Commissioners of Police’s insignia has National Emblem above Crossed Sword and Baton on it; Additional Commissioners of Police or Deputy Inspectors for Generals of Police will wear an insignia carrying the National Emblem above three stars in a Triangle, Assistant Superintendent of Police carry a two stars insignia; Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police or Additional Superintendent of Police (probationary rank on 2nd year of service) carry an insignia having the National Emblem on it;

Supreme Court’s intervention in IPS matters:

Overhauling of the entire police force’s administrative framework was highlighted in the Supreme Court, when a former DGP of the Assam and Uttar Pradesh, Prakash Singh initiated a Public Interest Litigation in the year 1996. He moved the court, seeking court’s intervention in the reformation of police forces in the country. The Supreme Court delivered an order, directing state governments to implement certain reforms in police forces.

Of the many reforms identified by the Supreme Court, regularization of the transfer process and separation of departments for the investigating and patrolling wings etc were some of them. The court also suggested the establishment of a State Security Commission, which shall help in effective implementation of policies; a Police Establishment Board, which shall be tasked with the functions relating to selection and promotion of officials; and a Police Complaints Authority, which shall inquire into complaints of alleged police misbehavior and abuse of power.

Sadly, the state governments showed laxity in the swift implementation of the reforms in the police force and the Supreme Court took cognizance of this failure in the year 2006. The Supreme Court rebuked the failure of the state government to respect the Apex Court’s decision and mandated submission of a report, stating why the identified reforms were not implemented in the police forces after all these years.

The Supreme Court’s reprobation caused many state governments to begin implementation process, with the state of Tamil Nadu being a front-runner in this regard. Yet again in 2002, the Supreme Court questioned the slowdown in the application of the reforms and mandated submission of the report in this regard.